Tag Archives: update

fix “[Error28] No space left on device” when upgrade ESXi to 6.7 U2

To upgrade ESXi to 6.7U2, usually use below command is enough:

esxcli software profile update -p ESXi-6.7.0-20190402001-standard -d https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml

But this time I got error “[Error28] No space left on device”.

Someone said to enable the swap on SSD can fix the issue, but I tried, it doesn’t work.

The fix is to manually update a vib first

[root@host:~] cd /tmp
[root@host:/tmp] wget http://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/esx/vmw/vib20/tools-light/VMware_locker_tools-light_10.3.5.10430147-12986307.vib
[root@host:/tmp] esxcli software vib install -f -v /tmp/VMware_locker_tools-light_10.3.5.10430147-12986307.vib
Installation Result
   Message: Operation finished successfully.
   Reboot Required: false
   VIBs Installed: VMware_locker_tools-light_10.3.5.10430147-12986307
   VIBs Removed: VMware_locker_tools-light_10.3.2.9925305-10176879
   VIBs Skipped:

Then run the update again, you should be able to update your ESXi host now.

Update Domain Controller to Windows Server 2016/2019 and move FSMO roles to new domain controller

I’m still using Windows 2012R2 as my home lab’s domain controller. Since MS released Windows Server 2019, so I think it’s the time to upgrade my test lab to Windows Server 2019.
The first server I want to upgrade is my domain controller.

Even though you can mount the ISO and click setup.exe to upgrade Domain Controller to Windows 2016/2019, but after a test, I found that this kind of “upgrade” is a fresh installation…If you upgrade your DC in this way, you will find after reboot, your DC is gone…You will only have a standalone server running windows 2016/2019 which is in a workgroup… I don’t know why MS permit people doing “upgrade” in this way and don’t show any warning message at all…

So how to upgrade DC to Windows 2016/2019 in the right way?

The right way is to build a new server, and prompt it to domain controller, and then move all FSMO roles to it.

1. Install a new Windows 2016/2019 Server.
2. Install “Active Directory Domain Services” on the server
3. Promote the server to a domain controller. Make sure you also installed DNS services on it.
4. Reboot the server.
5. Once the serer is up and running. Open Server Manager, then open “Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell”
6. Run below command:

Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole -Identity "DC2019" -OperationMasterRole 0,1,2,3,4

Press Y to move all FSMO roles to this server.
7. Run below command to make sure all FSMO roles are migrated to the new domain controller


8. demote the old domain controller and then remove the old DC from domain. And then shut down the old DC
9. Change the new DC IP address to the Old one. Then run below command to make sure all DNS records are updated and also no error.

dcdiag /fix

NTP – ntpdate works but does not update system time

Today I got a wired issue on AWS RHEL servers, ntpdate can’t update the time on it.

# ntpdate 0.centos.pool.ntp.org
ntpdate[23881]: step time server offset -2770.345091 sec
# ntpdate 0.centos.pool.ntp.org
ntpdate[23882]: step time server offset -2770.345357 sec

ntpdate can find out the time difference, but do not update system time.

And I did some research and found out this issue was caused by Wallclock Setting.

# hwclock --show
Cannot access the Hardware Clock via any known method.
Use the --debug option to see the details of our search for an access method.
# cat /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock

Below are the solutions for this issue:

cat /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock

0 means that the virtual machine is getting time from the host and not using independent wallclock.
1 means that the virtual machine is using independent wallclock and managing its time independent from the host.

Permanently Changing the Independent Wallclock Setting

Log in to the virtual machine environment as root.

Edit the virtual machine’s /etc/sysctl.conf file.
Add or change the following entry:


Enter 1 to enable or 0 to disable the wall clock settting.
Save the file and reboot the virtual machine operating system.

When it boots, a virtual machine gets its initial clock time from the host. Then, if the wallclock setting is set to 1 in the sysctl.conf file, it manages its clock time independently and does not synchronize with the host clock time.

Temporarily Changing the Independent Wallclock Setting

Log in to the virtual machine environment as root.
Enter the following command:

echo "1" > /proc/sys/xen/independent_wallclock

Enter 1 to enable or 0 to disable the wall clock settting.

Add or change the following entry:


Enter 1 to enable or 0 to disable the wall clock settting.

Update ESXi 6.5 to ESXi 6.5.0d

Put the host into maintenance mode, ssh to the host, and then run below command:

esxcli network firewall ruleset set -e true -r httpClient
esxcli software profile install -p ESXi-6.5.0-20170404001-standard -d https://hostupdate.vmware.com/software/VUM/PRODUCTION/main/vmw-depot-index.xml

Then reboot the host after installation finished:)

forget to update the bootloader when updating ZFS filesystems.

Today, when I reboot my freebsd server. Server can’t boot. The error message is

ZFS: unsupported ZFS version 5000 (should be 28)
can't find /boot/zfsloader

default: ssd::/boot/kernel/kernel

can't find /boot/zfsloader

The problem is caused by that after I update zfs version, I should update bootloader at the same time.

Fix it:

Download the latest Freebsd 9.1 current image. Note:if you are using the stable image, the bootloader in the image is still old and can’t support zfs 29.

Then use the image to boot the server, then enter ‘shell’,run below command for all boot disks:

#gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 mfid0

then reboot the server

从Win 2000域升级到Win 2003域的详细步骤

从Windows 2000域升级到Windows 2003域的详细步骤

从Windows 2000域升级到Windows 2003域的问题,建议您参考以下步骤:
1.确认当前的Windows 2000域控制器工作正常,并且都打了Service Pack 4和最新的安全补丁。
2.确认Windows 2000活动目录中的5个FSMO角色都在第一台Windows 2000域控制器上(默认情况就是这样的),关于Windows 2000活动目录中FSMO角色的概念及查看方法,请参考下面两篇文档:
《Windows 2000 Active Directory FSMO 角色》:

《在图形用户介面中查看和转移 FSMO 角色》

3.在Windows 2000域控制器的光驱中插入Windows Server 2003安装光盘。在命令行方式下进入光盘上的I386目录,运行以下命令:adprep /forestprep。该命令成功完成之后,再运行以下命令:adprep /domainprep。

4.完成这一步之后,我们便扩展了当前的Windows 2000活动目录林的架构,这样就可以将Windows Server 2003加入到活动目录林中作为其中的域控制器,或者将现有的Windows 2000域控制器升级为Windows Server 2003。

关于将Windows 2000域控制器升级到Windows Server 2003以及将Windows Server 2003域控制器加入到Windows 2000域的更多详细信息,请您参考下面这篇文档:
《如何将 Windows 2000 域控制器升级到 Windows Server 2003》:http://support.microsoft.com/?id=325379

5.在新购买的计算机上安装Windows Server 2003,并打上最新的安全补丁。
6.确认这台Windows Server 2003网络连接正常,可以访问域控制器和DNS服务器。将其配置为使用固定IP地址,并指定DNS服务器地址。
7.在Windows Server 2003上运行dcpromo命令将其升级为域控制器,并在升级时选择使其成为现有Windows 2000域的额外的域控制器。
8.在Windows Server 2003上安装DNS服务,确认它已经和原来的Windows 2000 DNS服务器上的数据复制同步后,将它的DNS服务器地址指向自己。
9.将这台Windows Server 2003域控制器设为全局编录(Glocal Catalog)服务器,具体方法请参考下面这篇文档:
《How to promote a domain controller to a global catalog server》:

10.将原来的Windows 2000域控制器上的5个FSMO角色转移到这台Windows Server 2003域控制器上,具体方法请参考下面这篇文档:
《如何查看和转移 Windows Server 2003 中的 FSMO 角色》:

当最后一步转移结构主机角色时可能会提示“当前域控制器是全局编录服务器,不要将结构主机角色转移到该域控制器上”,由于是在单域环境中,直接确认忽略该提示即可。关于在Windows 2000/2003域控制器上放置FSMO的更多信息,请参考下面这篇文档:
《在 Windows 2000 域控制器上放置和优化 FSMO》:

11.完成以上操作之后,新的Windows Server 2003域控制器便替代了原来的第一台Windows 2000域控制器的角色,但我们需要等待一段时间使原来的Windows 2000域控制器上的和全局编录及FSMO角色相关的活动目录信息完全复制到Windows Server 2003域控制器上。建议您观察一两天时间,并确认新的Windows Server 2003域控制器/DNS服务器一切工作正常后,再将原来的Windows 2000域控制器降级。

12.当所有的Windows 2000域控制器都成功降级,当前域中只剩下Windows Server 2003域控制器后,我们便可以提升当前域/活动目录林的功能级别,以便应用Windows 2003活动目录中的一些新特性,具体方法和注意事项请参考下面这篇文档:
《如何在 Windows Server 2003 中提升域和目录林功能级别》:

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